One of the major challenges faced by the world today is developing innovative and cost-effective bio-based technologies for sustaining a greener Earth, and the interactions between living beings are gaining renewed interest and value. This book describes advancements and opportunities for creating a sustainable environment for the welfare of humans with the help of microbes. Microbial activities are unique; their approaches can reduce stress on the environment, agricultural ecosystem, and soil biodiversity sustainability. A multidisciplinary view of microbial sustainability is presented in this book. Through the ten chapters, readers will find descriptions of various aspects of microbial-mediated environmental services and modern methodologies, including microbial-based bioremediation, treatment of industrial outpours, biosynthesis of nanoparticles, clean hydrogen production, therapeutics, biofuel production, and pharmaceutical applications. In terms of their physiology, metabolism and relevance as microbial models, microorganisms contribute to environmental, economic and industrial sustainability.