ISBN-13: 9781405180702 / Twarda / 2010 / 542 str.
The global market for seafood products continues to increase year by year. Food safety considerations are as crucial as ever in this sector, and higher standards of quality are demanded even as products are shipped greater distances around the world. The current global focus on the connection between diet and health drives growth in the industry and offers commercial opportunities on a number of fronts. There is great interest in the beneficial effects of marine functional compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Seafoods are well-known as low calorie foods, and research continues into the nutritional effects on, for example, obesity and heart disease. In addition, by-products of marine food processing can be used in nutraceutical applications. This book is a resource for those interested in the latest advances in the science and technology of seafood quality and safety as well as new developments in the nutritional effects and applications of marine foods. It includes chapters on the practical evaluation of seafood quality; novel approaches in preservation techniques; flavour chemistry and analysis; textural quality and measurement; packaging; the control of food-borne pathogens and seafood toxins. New research on the health-related aspects of marine food intake are covered, as well as the use of seafoods as sources of bioactives and nutraceuticals. The book is directed at scientists and technologists in academia, government laboratories and the seafood industries, including quality managers, processors and sensory scientists.
Preface. Contributors. 1 Seafood quality, safety, and health applications: an overview ( Cesarettin Alasalvar, Fereidoon Shahidi, Kazuo Miyashita, and Udaya Wanasundara ) 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Seafood quality. 1.3 Seafood safety. 1.4 Health applications of seafood. 1.5 Conclusions. References. PART I SEAFOOD QUALITY. 2 Practical evaluation of fish quality by objective, subjective, and statistical testing ( Cesarettin Alasalvar, John M. Grigor, and Zulfiqur Ali ) 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Methods used for fish freshness and quality assessment: from source to the consumer. 2.3 Potential use of micro– and nanotechnologies. 2.4 Conclusions. References. 3 Sensory evaluation of fish freshness and eating qualities ( David P. Green ). 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Methods for sensory evaluation of fish. 3.3 Pre–harvest factors affecting freshness. 3.4 Post–harvest factors affecting freshness. 3.5 Environmental taints. 3.6 Extending freshness and shelf–life in fish. 3.7 Conclusions. References. 4 Sensometric and chemometric approaches to seafood flavour ( Kae Morita and Tetsuo Aishima ). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Sensometric approach to seafood flavour. 4.3 Chemometric approach to seafood flavour. 4.4 Conclusions. References. 5 Instrumental analysis of seafood flavour ( Hun Kim and Keith R. Cadwallader ). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Isolation of volatile flavour compounds. 5.3 Instrumental analysis of volatile flavour compounds. 5.4 Conclusions. References. 6 Quality assessment of aquatic foods by machine vision, electronic nose, and electronic tongue ( Figen Korel and Murat Ö . Balaban ). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Visual quality. 6.3 Smell–related quality. 6.4 Taste–related quality. 6.5 Combination of machine vision system and electronic nose. 6.6 Conclusions. References. 7 Effects of nutrition and aquaculture practices on fish quality ( Kriton Grigorakis ). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 The role of muscle composition and fat deposition in fish quality. 7.3 Effect of feeding and aquaculture practices on quality characteristics. 7.4 Conclusions. References. 8 Lipid oxidation, odour, and colour of fish flesh ( Jeong–Ho Sohn and Toshiaki Ohshima ). 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Quantitative determination methodology of total lipid hydroperoxides by a flow injection analysis system. 8.3 Lipid oxidation in ordinary and dark muscle of fish. 8.4 Effects of bleeding and perfusion of yellowtail on post–mortem lipid oxidation of ordinary and dark muscles. 8.5 Conclusions. References. 9 Blackening of crustaceans during storage: mechanism and prevention ( Kohsuke Adachi and Takashi Hirata ). 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Phylogenetic position of prawns: the relation of PO and Hc. 9.3 Biosynthetic pathway of melanin. 9.4 Significance of melanisation in arthropods: pre–harvest and post–harvest. 9.5 Biochemical characterisation of proPO and PO. 9.6 The relationship of PO and melanogenesis in prawns. 9.7 Hemocyanin and its enzymatic activation. 9.8 The relationship of frozen storage and blackening. 9.9 Prevention of melanosis in prawns. 9.10 Conclusions. References. 10 Quality of freshwater products ( Masaki Kaneniwa ). 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Lipid and fatty acid composition in freshwater fish. 10.3 The effect of dietary fatty acid composition in cultured freshwater fish. 10.4 Enzymatic hydrolysis of lipid in the muscle of freshwater fish. 10.5 Quality of frozen surimi from freshwater fish meat. 10.6 Conclusions. 10.7 Acknowledgements. References. 11 Texture measurements in fish and fish products ( Zulema Coppes–Petricorena ) 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Measurement of fish texture. 11.3 Relevance of measuring texture in fish products. 11.4 Textural measurements of fish products. 11.5 Conclusions. 11.6 Acknowledgements. References. 12 Quality and safety of packaging materials for aquatic products ( T.K. Srinivasa Gopal and C.N. Ravi Shankar ). 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Packaging materials. 12.3 Packaging requirements for fish products. 12.4 Safety aspects of packaging materials. 12.5 Conclusions. References. 13 Fish mince: cryostabilization and product formulation ( Chong M. Lee ). 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Background information. 13.3 Manufacture of fish mince and cryostabilization. 13.4 Formulation of fish mince–based products in relation to ingredients and sensory quality. 13.5 Conclusions. 13.6 Acknowledgements. References. 14 New trends in species identification of fishery products ( Hartmut Rehbein ). 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Background information. 14.3 Microarrays. 14.4 Messenger RNA analysis. 14.5 Detection of allergenic fish and shellfish. 14.6 Determination of origin and stock assignment of fish. 14.7 Data bases. 14.8 Conclusions. References. 15 An emerging powerful technique: NMR applications on quality assessments of fish and related products ( Somer Bekiroglu ). 15.1 Introduction. 15.2 Low–field (time–domain) NMR applications. 15.3 High–field NMR applications. 15.4 Projections on MRI applications. 15.5 Conclusions. References. PART II SEAFOOD SAFETY. 16 Food–borne pathogens in seafood and their control ( Dominic Kasujja Bagenda and Koji Yamazaki ). 16.1 Introduction. 16.2 Major food–borne pathogens related to seafood. 16.3 Current trends in control of seafood–borne pathogens. 16.4 Conclusions. References. 17 Novel approaches in seafood preservation techniques ( Fatih Ö zogul, Yesim Ö zogul, and Esmeray Kuley Boga ). 17.1 Introduction. 17.2 Seafood preservation techniques. 17.3 Conclusions. References. 18 Essential oils: natural antimicrobials for fish preservation ( Barakat S.M. Mahmoud and Kazuo Miyashita ). 18.1 Introduction. 18.2 Essential oils. 18.3 Application of essential oils to fish preservation. 18.4 Conclusions. References. 19 Rapid methods for the identification of seafood micro–organisms ( Brian H. Himelbloom, Alexandra C.M. Oliveira, and Thombathu S. Shetty ). 19.1 Introduction. 19.2 Non–molecular (phenotyping). 19.3 Molecular (genotyping). 19.4 Conclusions. 19.5 Acknowledgements. References. 20 Using predictive models for the shelf–life and safety of seafood ( Graham C. Fletcher ). 20.1 Introduction. 20.2 Predicting contamination. 20.3 Predicting microbiological safety in chilled storage. 20.4 Predicting spoilage and shelf–life in chilled storage. 20.5 Predicting spoilage and shelf–life in frozen storage. 20.6 Predicting inactivation. 20.7 Conclusions. References. 21 Mathematical modelling of shrimp cooking ( Ferruh Erdogdu and Murat Ö . Balaban ) 21.1 Introduction. 21.2 Exact solutions. 21.3 Numerical solutions. 21.4 A numerical model for shrimp cooking. 21.5 Applications. 21.6 Conclusions. 21.7 Nomenclature. References. 22 Transgenic/transgenic modified fish ( Jenn–Kan Lu, Jen–Leih Wu, and Meng–Tsan Chiang ). 22.1 Introduction. 22.2 Methodology of gene transfer in fish. 22.3 Food safety of transgenic fish. 22.4 Regulations of transgenic animals including aquatic animals. 22.5 Conclusions. References. 23 Molecular detection of pathogens in seafood ( Iddya Karunasagar and Indrani Karunasagar ). 23.1 Introduction. 23.2 Probe hybridisation methods. 23.3 Nucleic acid amplification methods. 23.4 Conclusions. References. 24 DNA–based detection of commercial fish species ( Rosalee S. Rasmussen and Michael T. Morrissey ) 24.1 Introduction. 24.2 DNA–based methods and gene targets. 24.3 Major collaborative efforts. 24.4 Conclusions. 24.5 Acknowledgements. References. 25 Seafoods and environmental contaminants ( Beraat Ö zcelik, Ü mran Uygun, and Banu Bayram ). 25.1 Introduction. 25.2 Persistent environmental pollutants (PEPs). 25.3 Aquaculture practices as a source of persistent contaminants. 25.4 Factors affecting the occurrence of PEPs in seafood. 25.5 Risk assessment and regulations. 25.6 Policies to reduce exposure to PEPs. 25.7 Conclusions. References. 26 Oxidation and stability of food–grade fish oil: role of antioxidants ( Weerasinghe M. Indrasena and Colin J. Barrow ). 26.1 Introduction. 26.2 Process of oxidation. 26.3 Factors affecting the rate of lipid oxidation. 26.4 Food–grade fish oil. 26.5 Control of lipid oxidation and improvement of the stability of fish oil. 26.6 Antioxidants. 26.7 Selection of an antioxidant. 26.8 Conclusions. References. 27 Global legislation for fish safety and quality ( Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis and Persefoni Tserkezou ). 27.1 Introduction. 27.2 Global legislation in fish and fishery products. 27.3 Conclusions. References. 28 Food safety and quality systems (ISO 22000:2005) in the seafood sector ( Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis ). 28.1 Introduction. 28.2 Salmon. 28.3 Surimi. 28.4 Crabs. 28.5 Conclusions. References. PART III HEALTH APPLICATIONS OF SEAFOOD. 29 Health benefits associated with seafood consumption ( Maria Leonor Nunes, Narcisa Maria Bandarra, and Irineu Batista ). 29.1 Introduction. 29.2 Nutritional value. 29.3 Effect of cooking on nutritional value. 29.4 Health benefits of seafood. 29.4.5 Cancer. 29.4.6 Other effects. 29.5 Conclusions. References. 30 A new approach to the functional improvement of fish meat proteins ( Hiroki Saeki ). 30.1 Introduction. 30.2 Reaction between fish meat protein and reducing sugars through the Maillard reaction. 30.3 Suppression of protein denaturation at the Maillard reaction by controlling the reaction humidity. 30.4 Water solubilisation of fish Mf protein by glycosylation. 30.5 Molecular mechanism of water solubilisation by glycosylation. 30.6 Improvement of the thermal stability and emulsion–forming ability of fish myofibrillar protein. 30.7 Complex utilisation of under–utilised marine bioresources using the glycosylation system. 30.8 Food safety check of fish meat protein conjugated with AO. 30.9 Conclusions. References. 31 Value addition to seafood processing discards ( Sachindra M. Nakkarike, Bhaskar Narayan, Masashi Hosokawa, and Kazuo Miyashita ). 31.1 Introduction. 31.2 Enzymes from seafood discards. 31.3 Protein hydrolysate and bioactive peptides from seafood discards. 31.4 Collagen and gelatin from fish discards. 31.5 Chitin and chitosan from crustacean discards. 31.6 Carotenoids from crustacean discards. 31.7 Conclusions. References. 32 Role of marine foods in prevention of obesity ( Shigeru Nakajima ). 32.1 Introduction. 32.2 Anti–obesity effect of marine lipids. 32.3 Anti–obesity effect of histidine. 32.4 Conclusions. References. 33 Microencapsulation, nanoencapsulation, edible film, and coating applications in seafood processing ( Subramaniam Sathivel and Don Kramer ). 33.1 Introduction. 33.2 Application of microencapsulation technology in fish oil. 33.3 Nanoencapsulated fish oil. 33.4 Edible film and coating applications in seafood. 33.5 Conclusions. References. 34 Fish oil extraction, purification, and its properties ( Subramaniam Sathivel ). 34.1 Introduction. 34.2 Extraction. 34.3 Fish oil properties. 34.4 Conclusions. References. 35 Nutraceutical quality of shellfish ( Bonnie Sun Pan ). 35.1 Introduction. 35.2 Chemical compositions. 35.3 Functional activities. 35.4 Functional clam products. 35.5 Conclusions. 35.6 Acknowledgements. References. 36 Marine oils and other marine nutraceuticals ( Fereidoon Shahidi and Cesarettin Alasalvar ). 36.1 Introduction. 36.2 Specialty and nutraceutical lipids. 36.3 Bioactive peptides and proteins from marine resources. 36.4 Chitin, chitosan, chitosan oligomers, and glucosamine. 36.5 Enzymes. 36.6 Carotenoids. 36.7 Minerals and calcium. 36.8 Shark cartilage, chondroitin sulphate, and squalene. 36.9 Other nutraceuticals from marine resources. 36.10 Conclusions. References. 37 Nutraceuticals and bioactives from marine algae ( S.P.J. Namal Senanayake, Naseer Ahmed, and Jaouad Fichtali ). 37.1 Introduction. 37.2 Carotenoids. 37.3 Phycobilins. 37.4 Polysaccharides. 37.5 Omega–3 oils. 37.5.1 Characteristics of microalgal oils. 37.6 Conclusions. References. 38 Preparative and industrial–scale isolation and purification of omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine sources ( Udaya Wanasundara ). 38.1 Introduction. 38.2 Concentration methods of n–3 PUFA. 38.3 Conclusions. References. 39 Marine oil processing and application in food products ( Fereidoon Shahidi ). 39.1 Introduction. 39.2 Marine oil processing. 39.3 Enriched omega–3 oils. 39.4 Application of the omega–3 fatty acids/oils. 39.5 Conclusions. References. 40 Bioactive peptides from seafood and their health effects ( Anusha G.P. Samaranayaka and Eunice C.Y. Li–Chan ). 40.1 Introduction. 40.2 Sources of bioactive peptides from seafood. 40.3 Potential health benefits of bioactive peptides derived from seafood. 40.4 Current and future applications. 40.5 Conclusions. References. 41 Antioxidative properties of fish protein hydrolysates ( Sivakumar Raghavan, Hordur G. Kristinsson, Gudjon Thorkelsson, and Ragnar Johannsson ). 41.1 Introduction. 41.2 FPH as food antioxidants. 41.3 Sensory attributes of FPH. 41.4 Physiological and bioactive properties of FPH. 41.5 Conclusions. References. 42 Functional and nutraceutical ingredients from marine macroalgae ( Tao Wang, Gu o r ú n Ó lafsd ó ttir, R ó sa J ó nsd ó ttir, Hordur G. Kristinsson, and Ragnar Johannsson ). 42.1 Introduction. 42.2 Functional and nutraceutical properties of polyphenols from marine algae. 42.3 Functional and nutraceutical properties of sulphated polysaccharides from marine algae. 42.4 Functional and nutraceutical properties of fucoxanthin from marine algae. 42.5 Functional and nutraceutical properties of sterols from marine algae. 42.6 Functional and nutraceutical properties of bioactive peptides from marine algae. 42.7 Conclusions. References. 43 Seafood enzymes and their potential industrial application ( Swapna C. Hathwar, Amit K. Rai, Sachindra M. Nakkarike, and Bhaskar Narayan ). 43.1 Introduction. 43.2 Types of seafood enzymes and their applications. 43.3 Conclusions. References. Index. The colour plate section.
Associate Professor Cesarettin Alasalvar, TÜBITAK Marmara Research Centre, Food Institute, Turkey
Professor Fereidoon Shahidi, Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Professor Kazuo Miyashita, Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Japan
Dr Udaya Wanasundara, POS Pilot Plant Corporation, Canada
The global market for seafood products continues to increase year by year, with their perceived health benefits playing a significant part in their popularity. Seafood products are highly nutritious and provide a wide range of health–promoting compounds. Safety and quality are especially crucial when dealing with seafoods: they are highly perishable products and so special attention must be paid to the factors that influence safety and quality, from the time of the catch to the time they are prepared for food and consumed. The safety and freshness/ quality of seafoods can be measured by sensory, non–sensory (chemical/biochemical, physico–chemical, and microbiological/biological), and statistical methods. During the last decade, there has been marked progress in the development of all three types of technique, some of which are rapid and non–destructive in nature.
Marine–based nutraceuticals and functional foods are gaining attention due to their unique features, which are not found in terrestrial–based bioresources. For example, fish, marine mammals, and algae are the richest sources of long–chain omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which play an important role in health promotion and disease risk reduction.
This volume is divided into three sections preceded by an introductory chapter providing an overview of seafood quality, safety, and health applications. The first section describes different aspects of seafood quality, the second section covers the safety of seafoods, and the final section discusses the health applications of seafood products particularly marine nutraceuticals and functional foods.
The book is a resource for those interested in the latest advances in the science and technology of seafood quality and safety, as well as new developments in the nutritional effects and applications of marine foods. It will be especially valuable for food scientists and technologists, biochemists, nutritionists and marine technologists based in academia, government laboratories, and the food manufacturing industry. Although the book is intended primarily as a reference book, it also summarises the current state of knowledge in key research areas and contains ideas for future work. In addition, it provides easy–to–read text suitable for teaching advanced undergraduate and post–graduate courses.